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11/5/2018 - Use caution with acrylic or sculptured nails to avoid breaking

Nail Fungal Infections: A Guide to Prevention and Treatment by Dana LawrenceNail Fungal Infections: A Guide to Prevention and TreatmentHow Nail Fungal Infections OccurNail fungus (onychomycosis) is a common problem, affecting an estimated 40 million Americans. Most susceptible are men, individuals over forty, athletes, women who use acrylic nails, and those with a family history of infections or conditions which affect circulation, such as diabetes. Some individuals may also have inherited tendencies which make them more susceptible to developing nail fungus. The culprits are called dermatophytes, and they're found virtually everywhere in the environment. These are the same organisms that cause athlete's foot - a common skin infection of the feet.Symptoms of a fungal nail infection typically begin with nail discoloration. Fungal dermatophytes convert healthy nail into keratin debris, upon which they live and feed.


As keratin debris collects beneath the nail(s), they become thickened and may cause mild to severe discomfort, depending on the degree of infection. In advanced cases, nails become crumbly and may lift completely off the nail bed. As nail fungus advances it can become a social as well as a cosmetic problem. People with nail fungus will often shy away from pool or beach activities to avoid the embarrassment of ugly nails. For women in particular, pure acrylic emulsion fingernail fungus creates an even more serious social embarrassment. Hiding the problem behind false nails can make matters worse, as moisture becomes trapped between the acrylic surface, cement and the normal nail.Changes You Can Make in Your Daily Routine to Help Prevent A Nail Fungus Infection:·Avoid going barefoot in public places, especially health clubs, swimming pools and spas·Dry toenails thoroughly after bathing or showering: Fungus thrives on moisture and warmth·Don't wear shoes that fit too tightly and don't wear the same shoes every day; Throw away old shoes that may harbor fungus·Regularly treat the insides of shoes with antifungal spray (an athlete?s foot spray will work well)·Don't let athlete's foot infections go untreated, which can spread to the nails where it is much more difficult to get rid of·Avoid injuring nails; dermatophytes look for opportunities to invade through damaged cuticle margins. Wear protective shoes when playing sports or doing construction projects and gloves when gardening or doing other chores that may lead to nail injury or irritation·When having nails manicured, bring your own nail care tools to avoid picking up infections from others.


Use caution with acrylic or sculptured nails to avoid breaking the skin barrier which protects against fungal invasion. Use separate tools for healthy and infected nailsTreatment OptionsNail fungus infections have been notoriously difficult to treat, and it takes time for new, healthy nail to emerge. It is important to be patient and stay with the course of treatment you have chosen, to let it run its full course. Toenails can take between twelve to eighteen months to grow out, while fingernails normally grow out in about five and a half months. Also remember that damaged nails are more susceptible to reinfection, so try to avoid further injuring nails during the treatment period. The older you are, the slower your nails grow.Prescription oral antifungals, such as Terbinafine (Lamisil), Itraconazole (Sporanox) and Griseofulvin (Fulvacin, Grinactin). Though the rate of effectiveness is reported to be high, be aware that the use of systemic antifungals carries with it the risk of potentially serious side effects, including liver damage. Elderly individuals and those with conditions such as diabetics or compromised immune systems are not good candidates for this course of treatment. Cost ranges from $350. - $700.


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11/5/2018 - The spine area needs to be perfectly clean

Binding and Burst Binding are both hot melt adhesive processes. The difference between Perfect Binding and Burst Binding is in the spine preparation. Burst Binding requires the spine to be notched, done during the folding process using a special burst notching attachment. During the binding process the glue penetrates the notches into the centre of the section. In the Perfect Binding process the spine is milled off and the book is bound as single leaves. Perfect Binding is performed by milling off the spine and then notching the spine for the adhesive to flow into the spine paper fibers. The spine area needs to be perfectly clean and be free from inks, varnishes, sealants and laminating liquids. Ideally, paper up to 150gsm will be ideal for perfect binding techniques, although 170 gsm art papers may be able to be bound.


The Acoro 5 Perfect Binder incorporates the latest features including keyboard entry set-up and "Section Scanners". These scanners reduce waste and errors by rejecting books being bound with duplicate or incorrect sections. There are 2 main types of adhesives in current use: EVA (ethyl vinyl acetate) and PUR (poly urethane reactive). EVA is the standard, "hot melt adhesive" and PUR is known for higher pull strengths. PUR is the more expensive solution . Burst Binding is done by taking out a piece from the spine of the text during the folding stage and then the spine is not milled of at the binding stage therefore there is no allowance made at the spine. The important part of the burst binding process is that the cut away slot from the spine is done accurately and done consistently. PUR Adhesive Application is now possible in machines used by the leading Bookbinders.


PUR lasts longer than EVA hot-melt and cold-emulsion adhesives, it stands up to extreme temperatures better, and holds difficult coated papers and boards considered the strongest bookbinding acrylic emulsion adhesive on today's market. Applications for perfect binding includes paperback novels, booklets, telephone directories and some magazines use perfect binding processes. In comparison to other binding methods available to day it can be a manageable budget. Perfect Binding and Burst Binding are both hot melt adhesive processes. Perfect Binding puts all printed pages together and then flattens notches the spine and a flexible adhesive spine is produced. Burst Binding has a slightly different approach and the sections are notched during the folding process.


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