What is aldehyde dehydrogenase?
Aldehyde dehydrogenase is a class of enzymes with a variety of aldehydes as substrates. Aldehyde dehydrogenase has been classified according to enzymatic properties, subcellular localization and tissue specificity. In recent years, many studies have found certain aldehydes. In addition to its catalytic action, dehydrogenase has many other important physiological functions. A study by the US National Academy of Sciences shows that the amount of alcohol and the presence or absence of alcohol addiction are not developed by the exercise of the day after tomorrow, but by the "drinking gene", which can affect people's response to alcohol. So decide if this person is an alcoholic.
Aldehyde dehydrogenase is a kind of enzyme with a variety of aldehydes as substrates. In addition to its catalytic effect, aldehyde dehydrogenase has many other important physiological functions. Scientists at the University of Madrid in Spain pointed out that if genetic factors are excluded, drinking during pregnancy is the main reason for the unsound intelligence of the fetus. In fact, drinking alcohol has a lot of harm to the human body, not only for fetal intelligence, but also for the liver, kidney, stomach, prostate, nervous system and cardiovascular of the human body. Especially those who drink on the face, they are more damaging to him, and they can't get on the face, they can still inherit. If the parents are homozygous for the aldehyde dehydrogenase genotype, they will pass on the gene for good drinking to their children.
The spinach betaine aldehyde dehydrogenase gene (SoBADH) was isolated to construct a binary plant expression vector pBSB driven by CaMV35S, and the Agrobacterium strain LBA4404 carried the vector to transform cotton to obtain transgenic cotton plants. 65 strains of transgenic plants were screened by Southern blotting and Southern blotting analysis showed that 45 strains were successful transformants. The foreign genes have been integrated into the cotton genome and inserted in a single copy. Analysis of the expression of the SoBADH gene in some strains showed higher mRNA and protein expression. The betaine dehydrogenase activity in these lines was determined to be significantly increased to a level of 0.66 to 1.70 nmol/min/mg. At the same time, these transgenic lines grew stronger than the control under salt stress, and the fresh weight of plant height and aerial part was significantly higher than that of non-transgenic control. Under low temperature stress, these transgenic lines showed significant antifreeze performance, and the results showed that spinach beet Alkali aldehyde dehydrogenase can be overexpressed in heterologous plant cotton and has high enzymatic activity. Transgenic cotton can be used as a germplasm material for stress-resistant breeding.
A purified aldehyde dehydrogenase having the following physicochemical properties:
In the process of inheritance, parents will randomly pass one of the two genes to their children. Therefore, if parents are homozygous, their children are naturally homozygous. From this perspective, good drinking and poor drinking can be inherited. Of course, drinking is also related to body weight, body weight, body fluids, and the dilution effect on alcohol is also strong, so you can drink a little more. In addition, the proportion of genotypes of homozygotes in Westerners is higher, and the aldehyde dehydrogenases they produce have subtle differences and are more active. Therefore, Westerners are better off than the Orientals.
In life, there are many people who drink good, some people fight for the body, and some people naturally rely on enzymes. Needless to say, it is self-inflicted, but even if the enzyme is too much, it is harmful to health. After drinking, ethanol is first converted to acetaldehyde by the action of alcohol dehydrogenase. However, when the blood ethanol concentration is too high, another metabolic pathway is initiated, which is oxidatively decomposed into acetaldehyde by metabolism by the microsomal alcohol oxidase system (MEOS) in the endoplasmic reticulum.
However, ethanol is metabolized by the MEOS pathway, which not only does not produce energy, but also increases the consumption of oxygen, causing energy failure in the liver, damage to liver cells, and even death. At the same time, too much ethanol can cause damage to other organs of the human body, such as stomach bleeding, prostatitis, pancreatitis and even brain cell damage. Moreover, the genetic metabolite acetaldehyde is not only toxic to the liver, but also toxic to the human body. Therefore, even if you have more aldehyde dehydrogenase, its metabolism into acetic acid is faster, and acetaldehyde always has a short residence time in the body. For a long time, this damage can not be ignored.
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- The molecular weight is 100000±10000 Da (consisting of 2 homologous subunits) or the molecular weight is 150,000±15000 Da (composed of 3 homologous subunits), wherein each subunit has a molecular weight of 55000±2000 Da;
- Substrate specificity: active against aldehyde compounds;
- Cofactor: pyrroloquinoline quinone (PQQ);
- Optimum pH from about 6.5 to about 8.0 (for the production of vitamin C from L-sorbosone) or an optimum pH of about 9.0 (for the production of 2-keto-L-gulonic acid from L-sorbosone));
- Inhibitors: Co↑ [2+], Cu↑ [2+], Fe↑ [3+], Ni↑ [2+], Zn↑ [2+] and monoiodoacetate.
The Main Factor of Blood Fat Regulates: Apolipoprotein
Apolipoprotein is the protein part of plasma lipoprotein that can bind and transport blood fat to various tissues of the body for metabolism and utilization. A large number of studies have found that the mutation of apolipoprotein gene can form polymorphisms of different alleles and further form apolipoprotein with different phenotypes, which can affect the metabolism and utilization of blood fat, thus affecting the occurrence and development of hyperlipidemia, atherosclerosis and cardiovascular and cerebrovascular diseases. Apolipoprotein is the protein component of plasma lipoprotein, which can be divided into five categories: A, B, C, D and E. Its basic function is to transport adipose and stabilize the structure of lipoprotein. Some apolipoprotein also has functions of activating lipoprotein metabolic enzymes and recognizing receptors. APO is mainly synthesized in the liver (partly in the small intestine) and is named according to the ABC system. Each class can be subdivided into several subclasses, represented by Roman numerals.
Apolipoprotein is an important component of plasma lipoprotein, endows lipids with soluble form, and plays an important role in plasma lipoprotein metabolism:1. Promoting lipid transport;2. Regulating enzyme activity;3. Guiding the binding of plasma lipoprotein to cell surface receptors. It is an extremely active group of plasma proteins. Here are some typical apolipoproteins:
APOA1 is the most common component of APOA group, and is the main apolipoprotein in HDL. The physiological functions of APOA1 include: 1. Make up lipoprotein and maintain its structural stability and integrity. Experiments showed that APOA1 could spontaneously bind to lipids in aqueous solution. 2.APOA1 can activate the activity of lecithin cholesterol acyl transferase (LCAT) transfer. It has been confirmed that APOA1 catalyzes cholesterol esterification by activating LCAT. APOA1 peptides Ⅲ (peptides 116-151) is the center of activation; 3. Some scholars reported that APOA1 can act as a ligand of HDL receptor; APOA1 can form macromolecular complexes with transferrin and copper-blue proteins to transport iron and copper ions.
APOA4 is an apolipoprotein with polymorphism and a biological half-life of 10h, which was first found in rats DHL and CM. Its physiological function is unknown now, but it is presumed to play an important role in the reverse transport of HDL.
APOC2 is involved in the regulation of lipoprotein metabolism, especially plays an important role in the regulation of plasma rich TG lipoprotein catabolism. High concentration of 1 will inhibit the hydrolysis of rich TG lipoprotein, or affect the liver receptor's uptake of rich TG lipoprotein, causing the increase of plasma TG level and the formation of hypertriglyceridemia. It can also inhibit the activity of lecithin cholesterol acyltransferase. The main manifestations of APOC2 are:
Increased: Ⅰ, Ⅱ high lipoprotein hematic disease, primary biliary cirrhosis, nephrotic syndrome, etc.
Decreased: coronary heart disease, liver cirrhosis, APOC Ⅱ deficiency, etc.
APOE4 is a polymorphic protein involved in the transformation and metabolism of lipoproteins. Its genes can regulate many biological functions and are related to the incidence of many eye diseases. The study of APOE4 and its gene polymorphism is one of the hot spots in medical research at present. To explore their internal relationship has important clinical application value for the prevention, diagnosis and treatment of eye diseases. APOE4 has the following physiological functions: 1. It is a ligand of LDL receptor and CM residue receptor of liver cells, which is closely related to lipoprotein metabolism; 2. APOE4 has polymorphism, which is closely related to the occurrence and development of atherosclerosis.3. Participate in the activation of lipolytic enzymes, the immune regulation and the regeneration of nerve tissue.
Since the early 1980s, with the development and application of molecular biology technology, the cDNA and genes of APO A1, A2, A4, (a), B, C1, C2, C3, C4, D, E, F, H and J have been isolated and identified. The chromosomal localization of these apolipoprotein genes has also been completed. The identification of apolipoprotein cDNA and genes and the chromosomal localization provide a new tool for the in-depth study of the structure and function of apolipoprotein, the expression and regulation of apolipoprotein genes, and the relationship between genetic variation of apolipoprotein genes and atherosclerosis. Polymorphisms of various apolipoprotein genes have been reported in a large number of literatures. The in-depth study of apolipoprotein is of great significance for the diagnosis and treatment of abnormal lipoprotein metabolism and early atherosclerosis.
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