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Determining rice grades using rice grader machine

Posté le 25/6/2018 à 02:40 - 0 Commentaires - poster un commentaire - Lien

There are two important aspects that need to be considered in determining rice grades using rice grader machine; grading technique and determinants to be used for grading (usually referred as rice attributes). Many approaches and techniques have been used in the determination of the features of rice for grading purpose. These are the image processing together with NN, Wavelet Packet and Support Vector Machine, Contacting Angle Analysis method (separating contacting rice grain), Multi-threshold method based on maximum entropy (chalkiness), Minimum rectangle (MER)(length and width), image processing and the Adaptive Network Based Fuzzy Inference System (ANFIS), image processing, image processing and NN with support from computer vision systems and machine vision systems. Most of the researchers have used image processing and NN method in their works. Image processing have been used to extract the features in rice and based on these features extracted, chosen rice is classified or graded using the NN method.

Rice grading is important in determining rice quality and its subsequent price in the market. It is an important process applied in the rice production industry with the purpose of ensuring that the rice produced for the market meets the quality requirements of consumer. Two important aspects that need to be considered in determining rice grades are grading technique and determinants to be used for grading (usually referred as rice attributes).

Today's image processing techniques has become an increasingly popular and cost effective method in rice grading. Yoshioka et al. evaluated the effectiveness of image information processing to measure and categorize chalkiness. These results generated an accuracy rate of 90.2% in discriminating level of chalkiness. Aghayeghazvini et al. determined percentage of broken rice by using image analysis. This work indicates that the digital image processing technique can be used for estimating broken grains. Determination of the size and size distribution of rice and the amount of broken rice kernels using flatbed scanning and image analysis was developed by Dalen. It was concluded that image analysis yields the same accuracy and better precision than manual time consuming method. A digital image analysis algorithm based on 7 colour features namely mean value of red (R), mean value of green (G), mean value of blue (B), mean value of hue (H), mean value of saturation (S), mean value of intensity (I), the standard deviation of H and morphological features such as area, length, width, major axis length, minor axis length and others were developed by Yan et al. to identify rice seeds planted in Zhejiang province.

The whitening roll is made up of a cylindrical cast-iron roll which is tightly fitted to the main shaft. The whitening roll has a helical protrusion with an opening at the side to permit air to pass through the rice whitener machine for cooling purposes. Brown rice upon reaching the whitening chamber moves between the cylindrical castiron roll and the movable perforated screen vertically.

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Rotary sifter broken paddy separator machine needed improvement

Posté le 19/6/2018 à 09:41 - 0 Commentaires - poster un commentaire - Lien

Rotary sifter broken paddy separator machine needed improvement both in the separation accuracy for large and small broken kernels and in the separation precision for small broken kernels and foreign materials. A rotary sifter, alternatively called a plan sifter or swing sieve, is a compact hexahedral steel box swinging circularly on horizontal plane and contains a vertical stack of six to eight screen trays with different mesh sizes. Judging from this configuration, the rotary sifter broken paddy separator machine has little theoretical soundness because effective broken rice separation should be done by the kernel length not its width.

To be able to meet the above requirements, the separation process must include sieving, cleaning, winnowing, screening and the use of aspiration machine. Literature has shown the existence of rice stone specific gravity separator which works on a principle that makes use of the densities variation between sand and rice. There is another specific gravity separation method adopted by Adekoya and Koya. The system involves movement of grains on an oscillating conveyor and the application of aerodynamic force. Another machine for the separation of dust and stone from rice is the stoner separator. Multi crop cleaner has been developed by Ademosun. Ozormba described rice destoner as a machine, which takes advantage of the difference in axial velocities of rice and stone. The rice is fed via a hopper into a rotating cylindrical sieve, which separate the rice from the stone. The rice passes through the sieve and leaves the stone in the cylinder to roll down to the stone collector while rice is being collected in the rice collector in his paper used sieve shaker to separate guinea corn from rice. A method of separation similar to this is adopted in the current research work.

Indented cylinder separators or triers have, the differences in kernel length as their basic separating characteristic and have been using in seed cleaning and grain milling industry. Yamashita et al. studied the separating mechanisms and the factors affecting the performance of the broken rice separator of indented cylinder type. Later, they conducted experimental tests in an attempt to use an indented cylinder separator for separating rough rice from brown rice in rice hulling process. Kawamura et al. developed a rough rice fine cleaning system by combining an indented cylinder separator with a gravity separator.

An existing destoner machine was tested, modified and its performance was evaluated. The performance evaluation carried out on the machine after modification showed that the chaff cleaning, stone separation and material flow efficiencies through lower and upper sieves were relatively higher than the existing rice destoner. Also, the modified machine has an impressive material flow efficiency through the lower and upper sieves. This work also revealed that the design capacity of the modified machine was found to be 1.80 kg/h which was higher than 0.86 kg/h obtained from the previous machine. The machine was able to improve the quality of rice by de-chaffing and separation of broken rice particles.

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